Archive from December, 2012

Al-Zahrawi

Modern surgeon master of  Medieval.
At the golden era of medieval, Moslem civilization invested a fame surgeon master into history, whose had significantly contributed to the medical surgey achievement. He had invented methods and procedures of modern surgery, and also invented a lot of surgery tools and technology. It was no wonder that he reknown as the master of modern surgeon.

The inventor of the modern surgeon Al-Zahrawi was born  in 936 M. The west world known him as Abulcasis. He was known as a fenomenal surgeon of the time. His works and thoughts had adopted a lot to the west medical. “His modern surgeon principles once was standard sylabus of the universities in Europe,” wrote Dr. Campbell in History of Arab Medicine.

The noble surgeon original name was Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi. He was born in 936 A.D. in Zahra, small city located 9,6 km outskirts of Cordoba, Spain. Al-Zahrawi was an Arabic descendant of Ansar tribe resided in Spain. It was in Cordoba he had schooled and then gave his medical lectures, gave his public health services, and develop surgeon technology to his death.

There is so little about his youth history was revealed. In case, his hometown Al-Zahra had burned out over the wars. The history of Al-Zahrawi then written-up when Andalusia’s scientist Abu Muhammad ibn Hazm (993M-1064 A.D) enlisted him as one of a noble surgeon master of Spain in Al-Humaydi’s Jadhwat al Muqtabis a book written six decades after his death.

Al-Zahrawi dedicated some fifty years of his life to surgeon and medical teaching. His noble was brought him to the royal services of kingdom in the era of Al-Hakam II khalif of Andalus. He had not traveled a lot just like other moslem scholars of the time. His concern and focus dedication was on accident and war victims.

His colleagues confessed his genius on surgery, his ventures on medical and surgeon was so immense, his ‘treasures’ of invaluable medical bible Al-Tasrif li man ajaz an-il-talil—was an encyclopedia of medical science since then. The 30 volume books of standard syllabus of Europe medical school.

It was the book in which he’d been in detail descripted on surgeon, orthopedic, opththalmology, farmakology, and standard medical chapters. It was also descript about cosmetics, and more chapters include deodorant, hand lotion, hair care and tints which then derivated to our modern day products.

His day of popularity were radiant over Europe, that his patients and medical disciples came from anywhere of Europes. Will Durant wrote, at the time, Cordoba was a favourite for Europeans for surgery. There was more than 50 hospitals giving prime services in Cordoba.

He was a lecturer who love his students. It was then revealed in Al-Tasrif, how he care about his students queries. Al-Zahrawi ever reminded his students about necessity on building good relationships with the patients. He also reminding that a doctor should dedicated to any patients at best no matter what the social status they have.

To give their services, it is important a doctor gave a closed observation to their patients, especially on personal cases. To give such services, for sake of diagnose accuracy and possible services of the best. To hold on doctor ethics, is not to make money by doing a doctor.

The surgeon is not an all men profession. Al-Zahrawi ever remind all people not to do surgery with non-recommended paramedics or doctors. Only certified doctors were recommended to provide surgery. It was then we knew the urgency of specialist surgery doctors (surgeon) for our modern world.

“Undoubtably, Al-Zahrawi is the master of surgeon.” said Pietro Argallata. The book of Al-Tasrif he had written were translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in 12 A.D., the book which delicated with illustrations, and had been the resources of medical school syllabus and doctor or surgeon references of Europe for five centuries of the medieval.

The personal figure and thought of Al-Zahrawi was in admiration among doctors and his students in Europe. In 14th century, a surgery doctor of French nationality, Guy de Chauliac would like to quoted Al-Tasrif more than 200 quotations for his writings. The book of Al-Tasrif was a handbook of medical school of Europes before Renaissance. Until 16th century, a French surgeon, Jaques Delechamps (1513 AD-1588 AD) kept the book of Al-Tasrif as a standard reference.

Al-Zahrawi died in Cordoba in 1013 AD—just two years after his hometown raped and destroyed. Today, Cordoba is no longer a moslem country, but his name were respectedly carved to be street name ‘Calle Albucasis’. The location which is a house number 6 –where Al-Zahrawi had lived in the old times. It was now a historical spot and a tourism object in Spain. (heri ruslan, Republika 14 mei 2008).

The Inventor of hundreds of Modern Surgery tools.
More than 50 years of his life dedication to surgeon, Al-Zahrawi had invented tens of modern surgery tools. In his book of al-Tasrif, the ‘surgeon master’ were introduced more than 200 surgery tools of his inventions. Hundreds of inventory of his surgery tools, were never existed before his era.

History wrote, along his career, Al-Zahrawi invented some new 26 surgery tools. It was catgut, a tool used to sew in surgery in this modern days. The forceps is a tool to shift a dead embrio. It had described for first time in the book of al-Tasrif.

In the book of al-Tasrif, he introduced how ligature (surgeon threads) enable us to control an artery bleeding. Surgery needles were actually described clearly in that book. There are dozens of his new inventions in the book.

Important tools of his invents are: scalpel, curette, retractor, surgical spoon, sound, surgical hook, surgical rod, and specula. More invents of Al-Zahrawi are surgery tool to works on uretra, tool to remove things out of throat and tool to works on ears. His dominant contributions in surgeons was memorable in medical history.

Links:
www.medarus.org/Medecins/
www.cardenashistoriamedicina.net/
www.oftalmo.com/secoir/secoir2005/
www.lib.hku.hk/denlib/exhibition/rarebook/

 

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