Al Battani was born in 858 at Battan, Harran, called Carrhae in earlier times by the Romans, which lies on the Balikh River, 38 km southeast of Urfa. His complete name is Abu Abdallah Mohammad ibn Jabir ibn Sinan al-Raqqi al-Harrani al-Sabi al-Battani. But the medieval author fellows prefer to call him Albategnius, Albategni or Albatenius.
He already interested to Astronomy since his teen days, and study on it to his father, Jabir ibn Sinan al-Battani, who is a scientist. Teenager Al Battani is a smart that he could master in short time, all the lessons from the father who had a high reputation as an astronomical instrument maker in Harran. Soon after Al Battani left Harran city to Raqqa located at Euphrates river bank, to continue his education and research, then made his remarkably accurate astronomical inventions at Antioch and ar-Raqqah in Syria.
The town of ar-Raqqah, where most of al-Battani’s observations were made, became prosperous when Harun al-Rashid, who became the fifth Caliph of the Abbasid dynasty in September 14, 786 AD, built several palaces there. The town had been renamed al-Rashid at that time but, by the time al-Battani began observing there, it had reverted to the name of ar-Raqqah as it became a developed trading and science city. The town was on the Euphrates River just west of where it joins the Balikh River on which Harran stands.
As an astronomical scientist, al-Battani given his most scientifical observation for the astronomy world, and he is the first astronomer who refined and improved in high accuracy on how is the time length of earth elapsed the sun, that is 365 days, 5 hours, 46 minutes, and 24 seconds. This account then agreeabled by those modern scientists doing observation using sophisticated devices.
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